Today, Artificial Intelligence is a word commonly used in many fields from voice assistants to self-driving cars. But companies like to use the term AI to explain even the simple analytics or functionalities. Today, we will like to talk about AI in a way that will help you understand what it is, how is it evolving, where is it being used, and who are the companies making use of AI. Let’s start with the definition.
What is AI?
Artificial Intelligence can be defined in the most simple terms as: “DescriptionIn computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans.” Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the induction of human intelligence in computers which are engineered to think like humans and imitate their behavior. The word may also refer to any computer that displays human mind-like characteristics such as learning and problem-solving based on that learning.
All in all, AI is the technology that makes machines “think,” which essentially means it enables them to do tasks just like humans do. It is not just remembering data and processing it as common programs do. It is enabling machines to think on their own and make logical decisions about things just like humans do. The common technologies or algorithms that make AI possible are listed below. Anything that doesn’t use these high-level algorithms can’t be regarded as AI.
- Machine Learning
- Deep Learning
- Neural Networks
- Bayesian networks
- Evolutionary algorithms
Types of AI
The following can also be thought of as stages of AI through which AI is evolving and is hoped to evolve and finally reach the stage just like human intelligence. We discuss the three most common types of AI below.
1. Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), also known as Narrow AI or Weak AI, is a form of Artificial Intelligence that performs one narrow -range or a single task. It has a limited spectrum of capabilities. For now, this is the AI that exists largely today. A machine that possesses ANI doesn’t mean it is dumb, it just means it can work with a relatively small amount of data than humans do.
2. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
When the term AI is used, it generally refers to AGI. If an Artificial Intelligence system is designed to completely emulate human intelligence and behavior, it is called Artificial General Intelligence. Some scientists also like to call it Strong AI and Full AI. Simply put, it is the Artificial Intelligence System that can function fully and make similar decisions like humans.
3. Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) is the conceptual AI, often termed as Super AI, that not only imitates human intelligence and behavior. It is the stage where computers are self-conscious and exceed human intelligence and ability. In addition to replicating human beings’ multifaceted intellect, ASI potentially would be far stronger at everything we do like maths, science, art, sports, medicine, entertainment, interpersonal relationships, everything. Ultimately, super-intelligent beings’ decision-making and problem-solving capacities would be far superior to human beings.
Applications of AI
The following are some of the major applications of AI developed and used in the current age.
1. Knowledge reasoning
Knowledge representation and reasoning in the field of artificial intelligence dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks. This application allows a computer to collect raw data as it is compiled in different companies, institutions, and centers. It then represents it in graphical forms to extract relations and patterns in the data. A machine then finally uses this data form to take further actions just like humans would do. The most common examples of knowledge reasoning are medical diagnose, human-like speech, or theorem provers.
2. AI Planning
Automated planning, commonly referred to as AI planning, is the application of AI that deals with producing concrete steps or course of action for a specified task that optimize overall performance measures. AI planning describes steps for a described system. These algorithms make use of the way humans perform a task and then, in a way, write code for machines to do the same. Common examples include robots and autonomous systems, cognitive assistants, and service composition.
3. Machine learning (ML)
Instead of using explicit instructions, relying on patterns and inference, ML is the subset of AI that uses training data to make predictions about a specific field. it is also referred to as predictive analytics as it trains on historical data available about a domain and learns the factors that contribute to the output. ML algorithms are used in a wide range of applications, such as email filtering, weather prediction, and computer vision, where the creation of a traditional algorithm to efficiently perform the task is difficult or unfeasible.
4. Natural language processing (NLP)
NLP can be thought of as a subfield of linguistics, computer science, information engineering, and artificial intelligence that deals with the interaction between machines and humans. As humans use natural languages to communicate, this field enables machines to understand these languages and respond in the same languages. You can see the most common example in digital personal assistants.
5. Computer vision (CV)
Unlike NLP which uses text to extract information, CV uses digital images or videos to help computers gain a high-level understanding of the world. A CV is described as a field of study aimed at developing techniques to help computers “see” and comprehend digital media, such as photographs or videos. This remains largely an unresolved problem based on both the limited knowledge of biological vision and the nature of visual perception in a physical world that is dynamic and almost infinitely variable. It is commonly used in image processing/editing applications.
Major AI Companies in the World
Below is a brief introduction of major companies (hand-picked from Forbes AI 50 list around the world that are using AI to solve real-world problems.
- Nuro is an AI company that builds autonomous vehicles for the transport of goods from retail centers and shops to homes or storage to shopping centers.
- Uptake is a five-year-old company that leverages artificial intelligence to analyze how its customers’ machines can run better and avoid common failures.
- Lemonade sells renters and homeowners insurance through the use of a chatbot to collect customer information and work through claims.
- Dataminr ingests public internet data, like social media posts, and uses deep learning, natural language processing, and advanced statistical modeling to send users tailored alerts.
- Icertis, which celebrated its tenth anniversary earlier this year, uses a cloud-based platform to help companies analyze past contract negotiations and automate administrative tasks.